Sclerite of the eye is a severe destructive inflammation, which threatens to reduce visual functions. With sclerite, the sclera and deep layers of the episcler are affected.
Sclera is the fibrous membrane of the eye. As a rule, the focus of inflammation is in the deep tissues of the sclera, but there may be several foci of inflammation.
In rare cases, sclerotis is an independent disease, usually inflammation is provoked by systemic diseases, immune deficiency. In the initial stages of inflammation affects one eye, after a while the second eye can be struck.
Scleritis is most affected by women, rather than men. In addition, the disease, in general, overtakes people of middle and old age. Often sclerite eyes have a chronic course with exacerbations.
Types of sclerite of the eye
Symptoms of sclerite of the eye
In the early stages of the disease is accompanied by a strong blunt pain in the eye. Reddening of the external part of the sclera, that is, the protein of the eye, is observed. Redness may be partial or cover the entire protein. On the sclera there may be small bulges, small vessels dilate.
In some cases, redness also spreads to the mucosa to the eye, that is, the conjunctiva. Patients complain of pain when they touch the eye through the eyelid, the limited movements of the eye, the difficulty of movement of the eyeball, photophobia. If other tissues of the eye are affected, visual impairment may develop.
Causes of sclerite of the eye
As a rule, scleritis is non-infectious, inflammation very rarely occurs as a result of penetration of the pathogen into the sclera. Scleroviruses can be accompanied by systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatism, systemic scleroderma, ankylosing spondylitis, nodular periarteritis, gout, hypertension. Decreased immunity can trigger the development of scleritis, in addition tuberculosis and syphilis can also cause inflammation.
Lack of treatment for a long time can cause a complication such as an abscess of the sclera, which is characterized by the formation of a purulent cavity in the sclera due to infection. Another complication of the sclerite of the eye may be uveitis, that is, an inflammatory process in the choroid. When scleritis can form staphylomas, this condition is characterized by protrusion of the sclera. Prolonged scleritis is fraught with the appearance of keratitis, damage to the cornea of the eye, which can be accompanied by astigmatism or thinning of the cornea; with posterior sclerite eyes, it is possible to disrupt the nutrition of the retina and the fundus. All the above complications of scleritis of the eye can provoke significant visual impairment or complete loss of vision.
Treatment of scleritis of the eye
Local treatment of the disease involves the use of eye drops and solutions containing antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs. To remove the inflammatory process, hormonal suspensions are used.
General treatment consists in the treatment of the underlying disease. Treatment of scleritis of the eye means taking medication in the form of tablets. These can be desensitizing, hormonal, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
If there is a purulent complication of the sclerite of the eye, surgical treatment may be required, which involves opening and draining the focus, taking antibiotics.