It is generally believed that the cause of strabismus is a violation of the oculomotor muscles. However, not all so simple! In 95% of children, the cause of strabismus is temporary paralysis or paresis of any muscle in the eye. In turn, the cause of this phenomenon - in birth trauma. As a rule, the strabismus that has arisen in infants is imperceptible. But children quickly form a "cross-eyed" vision, just like healthy children quickly form a "straight-eyed" vision.
Either on this background, or primarily in some children, functional inequality of the eyes arises, which leads to the development of amblyopia in one of the eyes (dysbinocular amblyopia) and often with noncentral visual fixation. It happens that vision is lowered and in both eyes (binocular amblyopia) - for example, with astigmatism of both eyes.
Paresis (or paralysis) disappears later on, and strabismus persists through a "cross-eyed" view, just as healthy children retain the habit of the direct position of the eyes, that is, the "straight-eyed" view.
Strabism sometimes remains small during life, sometimes increases at 2-3 years of age and older. The latter is due to fright, stress, acute diseases.
The treatment of strabismus is like learning a foreign language, it takes a long time, more difficult than it seems and it would be desirable. And it is effective only if all recommendations of this knowledgeable physician and his professional assistant - an orthopedic nurse, as well as from persistent daily trainings - are carefully observed.
Treatment of children under 2 years old
Treatment of monolateral strabismus (mows one eye) is performed using a special method called "Optical Penalization". If treatment is started before 2 years, this method corrects sight in all children - aligns the visual acuity of both eyes, corrects visual fixation.
Treatment of children older than 2 years
Treatment of strabismus is carried out with the help of spectacle correction, occlusions (eye patches), pleoptic and orthoptic treatment.
Ophthalmic correction It is prescribed if the child has a decrease in visual acuity. Points should create optimal conditions for sight and nothing more.
Occlusion - an obligatory element of amblyopia treatment. From a real specialist, the patient will leave with occlusion already from the first reception. Of course, gluing - this spectacle is not aesthetic, however, it closes strabismus - a natural ugliness. In addition, occlusion is a temporary phenomenon that is necessary for a person to get out of a cross-eyed view. Remember that if you allow at least 1-2 minutes to allow yourself to look at two eyes, then the whole day spent with occlusion is passed in vain, and if the full day is held without gluing, then a whole year of sticking out of the treatment falls out.
Patients who have underdeveloped vision (amblyopia) are treated with pleoptic treatment, which restores the functional equality of the eyes. The effectiveness of this method is very high, if you observe the main condition of pleoptics: fix the fixation of the eye first, and then develop visual acuity.
Orthoptic treatment - this is the next stage, during which a person is taught "straight-eyed", that is, a correct vision. Treatment is carried out with the help of special exercises, and also with the help of synoptophore, and then - on color testing.
At all stages of treatment, if necessary, is performed. surgical treatment .