The spinal cord is it is a nervous tissue that goes down from the brain in the spinal canal of the back. The spinal canal is surrounded by the spine in the form of an osseous structure that protects the spinal cord from various injuries.
Thirty-one spinal nerves move away from the spinal cord to the chest, stomach, legs and hands. These nerves give the command to the brain to move by these or other parts of the body. In the upper part of the spinal cord there are nerves that control the hands, the heart, the lungs, in the lower part - the legs, the intestines, the bladder and so on. Other nerves return information from the body to the brain - a sense of pain, temperature, body position and so on.
Causes of spinal cord injury
The spinal cord, unlike other parts of the body, is unable to recover, so its damage leads to irreversible processes. Damage to the spinal cord can be the result of more than one process: these are spinal injuries, and blood flow disorders, and infections, and tumors, etc.
Damage to the spinal cord
Severe symptomatology damage to the spinal cord is manifested depending on two factors: the location of the lesion and the degree of damage.
The location of the damage.
The spinal cord can be damaged either in the upper part or in the lower part. Depending on this, the symptoms of damage are distinguished. If the upper part of the spinal cord is damaged, then such damage causes more paralysis. For example, fractures of the upper parts of the spine, especially the first and second cervical vertebrae, lead to paralysis of all limbs - both hands and both legs. In this case, the patient is able to breathe only with the aid of an artificial respiration apparatus. If the lesions are located lower - in the lower parts of the spine, then only the legs and the lower part of the trunk can paralyze.
Degree of damage.
Distinguish the severity of damage to the spinal cord. Damage can be either partial or complete. This again depends on the location of the lesion - that is, which part of the spinal cord in this case has been damaged.
Partial spinal cord injury. With this kind of damage, the spinal cord transmits only some signals to the brain and back. In this connection, sensitivity remains in patients, but only to a certain extent. And also separate motor functions are kept below the area of the lesion.
Complete spinal cord injury. With full spinal cord injury, there is a complete or almost complete loss of motor function, as well as sensitivity below the affected area. But I must say that the spinal cord, even with complete damage, will not be cut. But the recovery is only the spinal cord, subjected to partial damage, while the completely damaged brain is not restored.