Primary tuberculosis more often overtakes children and adolescents, adults fall ill with this disease much less often.
Between the penetration into the body of a tuberculosis infection before the onset of tuberculosis itself as a disease, there is a period of latent infection.
The period of primary infection is characterized by signs of tuberculosis in adolescents:
Tuberculosis intoxication is characterized by the absence of a clear localization of tuberculosis, and its clinical manifestations may indicate functional disorders in various body systems.
Sources of infection with tubercle bacillus
The small size of tuberculosis lesions does not allow to reveal the localization of the disease by roentgenological and other methods. In general, sources of intoxication are minimal tuberculosis foci in the lymph nodes, although foci in the liver, tonsils, bones and other organs are less common.
Tuberculous intoxication in children and initiate mycobacteria, these are acid-fast bacteria of the genus Mycobacterium. And out of seventy-four species of such mycobacteria, tuberculosis in humans provokes a conditionally isolated complex of M. tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis in humans in most cases develops when infected with bovine and human types of pathogens. There is also avian tuberculosis, which affects predominantly immunodeficient carriers.
Primary infection with tuberculosis is mainly airborne, although contact, alimentary and transplacental are known, which are observed much less frequently.
Mycobacteria are outside the cells and multiply slowly, but phagocytosis begins at the site where a large number of mycobacteria are concentrated.
However, with insufficient activation of macrophages, phagocytosis is not very effective, so the reproduction of MBT occurs in an exponential manner.
An increased population of MBT leads to imbalance in the immune defense and inflammation spreads further. As a result, primary infection is reborn into clinically pronounced tuberculosis.
The main signs of tuberculosis in adolescents
Signs of early tuberculous intoxication in children and adolescents are noticeable primarily in the imbalance of the nervous system, this is manifested in a change in the behavior of the child. He becomes irritable, irritable, his attention diminishes, sleep disturbances occur, and headaches occur.
Signs of tuberculosis in adolescents and children are accompanied by:
If the child is thin, he can easily feel the enlarged liver and spleen. Disturbances can also be seen, in the form of diarrhea or constipation.
In a month and a half after the initial infection in children, a positive tuberculin test can be determined.
Often, nodosum erythema, which is usually preceded by high fever, is often found, and a few days later on the front surfaces of the shins, dense, hot to the touch, infiltrates of red color appear. They are very painful and have a cyanotic hue. Mostly, erythema appears in preschool children and younger schoolchildren, it is an allergic reaction of the body, and not a tuberculous lesion of the skin. In chronic tuberculous intoxication in children and adolescents, the developmental lag, pallor and micro-polarities become noticeable when it is possible to probe up to nine groups of enlarged lymph nodes of different configurations.