Skin lesions that are caused by tuberculosis bacteria are a group of diseases that differ in manifestation and outcome.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has several stages of development, it is acid-fast, Gram-positive, does not have a capsule and does not form a spore. Of the known three types of tuberculosis bacteria of human, bovine and avian, most often find mycobacteria of the human type, somewhat less often - bovine and very rarely - avian.
Most often, tubercular skin diseases occur as a secondary phenomenon in patients who previously had tuberculosis of other organs. The primary lesion of the skin in the form of tuberculous chancre is very rare due to the barrier function of the skin.
How is tuberculosis of the skin transmitted?
Tuberculosis bacillus can penetrate the skin in two ways. The first is determined by the direct contact of the sick person (animal) with the skin of a healthy person. In this case, mycobacterium tuberculosis penetrates the skin through damage in it, it can be abrasions, cracks, scratches. This exogenous path is not common. Endogenous way of penetration of the causative agent of the disease - with the blood flow, or on the lymph vessels from the organ affected by tuberculosis - lungs, bones, kidneys, etc. Hematogenous and lymphogenous occur most often. The introduction of the causative agent of tuberculosis into the skin occurs from neighboring organs affected by tuberculosis. The causative agent is transferred with sputum, feces, urine, for example, in persons with intestinal tuberculosis, the development of tuberculosis of the skin around the anus is possible, and in the pulmonary form of tuberculosis, oral mucosa and the like
can be affected.
Tuberculosis is transmitted from person to person and the most dangerous are patients who continuously secrete Koch's wand. The initiator of infection can be urine, sputum, tear, saliva, the patient's blood. The causative agent of tuberculosis can persist for a long time in the external environment, it can be dusty, mold-contaminated rooms. Mycobacteria are able to survive for years, and at the same time be dangerous to humans. Tuberculosis is not affected by people alone, but also animals, such as horses, cows, goats, moose, deer, camels. The source of infection may well be milk or meat of infected animals. Since Koch's rod does not have a nucleus, the genetic information is distributed uniformly throughout the body. Therefore, even a wand fragment can be reborn. In humans, mycobacterium tuberculosis is parasitic in the immune system than they are similar to viruses that cause immunodeficiency. Koch's wand can be in the body for life, and an infected person may not even know about it.
Tuberculosis of the skin is a consequence of a complex combination of violations of various physiological functions of the skin in conjunction with a decrease in immunity and the development of sensitization.
Treatment of skin tuberculosis
In the treatment of tuberculostatic chemotherapy, drugs to increase immune defenses and normalize metabolic disorders. When treating doctors, they take into account the resistance of bacteria to tuberculosis and try to prevent it. Tuberculostatic drugs are divided into three groups according to their curative effects. The first - the most effective means, is isoniazid, rifampicin. The second group includes medications of average efficiency, this is ethambutol, protionamide, streptomycin, pyrazinamide, florimycin, kanamycin. The third group includes medications of moderate activity, it is PASK, tibon.