Noises of pathological origin in the airways are usually called wheezing and can be detected in the lungs, bronchi, trachea and any area of the respiratory system.
The most part of diseases of the respiratory system, such as bronchitis, broncho- and pulmonary pneumonia, tuberculosis, tracheitis, bronchial asthma, COPD, allergic reactions of the immediate type, (anaphylaxis), lung infarction, edema, lung cancer, bronchiectasis and a number of diseases .
Causes of wheezing in the lungs
The causes of wheezing and determine the mechanism and places of occurrence of wheezing, as well as their intensity. Noises in the respiratory system can result from two predominant pathological processes. This narrowing of bronchial lumens due to spasms or inflammatory changes. In addition, the lumen of the respiratory tract is clogged with varying degrees of density and viscosity by purulent-mucous substances, for this reason, during inspiration-exhalation these masses, while in constant motion, create sound vibrations.
However, to recognize the nature of pulmonary noise and determine the cause can only be a specialist.
Types of wheezing for various diseases
The result of the accumulation of sputum in the bronchi is wet rales, and their type is determined by the auscultation method. In this case, constantly bursting vesicles appear in the flow of air passing through the sputum. There is a "mass explosion" of these bubbles, which initiates sound vibrations in the form of wet rales. This phenomenon is mainly observed with inhalation, and with the exhalation of air from the lungs such manifestations are less often recognized. Depending on the diameter of the bronchi, the mass of accumulated mucus, the volume of the cavity itself, the size of the vesicles may differ. Thus, small-, medium- and large-bubbly wet wheezing is distinguished.
With a lung infarction, bronchopneumonia and bronchiolitis, small bubble noises are detected, their noise is similar to the hiss of foaming soda water.
Medium vesicles, this is the result of the development of hypersecretory bronchitis or bronchiectasis. The noise of these rales is similar to the sound that arises when air is poured through a straw into a liquid. Such rales can also signal small abscesses in the lungs (bronchi) when pneumonia develops. Such a noise is audible at the first stage of the pulmonary edema. Distinguish and "crackling" medium bubbling rales that arise when the walls of bronchioles and acini breaks, and may indicate pulmonary fibrosis or pneumosclerosis.
A large-bubbling, rattling wheezing occurs when mucus accumulates in large bronchi, trachea, or in large pathological cavities. A similar noise occurs in the auscultation, when the air passes through the inhalation through the organs. The rattling rattle is clearly discernible and without the help of a phonendoscope, this is characteristic of late stages of pulmonary edema. Such clusters in the trachea or bronchial tubes are sometimes formed in patients with a weakened cough reflex.
Among the dry rales there are "buzzing" and "whistling".
In case of an asthmatic attack, a noise in the form of a whistle is produced, which produces bronchi due to uneven narrowing of the lumens with bronchospasm.
"Buzzing" wheezing you can hear the sick, when in the lumens of their bronchi there are filiform mucous membranes due to inflammation.
Treatment of wheezing
To get rid of the patient from wheezing, it should, of course, conduct adequate treatment of the disease, which is the cause of their occurrence. From drug therapy, for example, mucolytics are used to dilute sputum and facilitate its withdrawal.
To relax the walls of the bronchi and eliminate spasms use inhalation beta-adrenomimetics.
To combat inflammatory processes in the respiratory organs, which are provoked by a bacterial infection, antibiotics are usually prescribed.