Pneumonia - inflammation of the lungs, which can occur independently or develop as a complication during the course of other diseases. The causes of pneumonia are associated with bacteria, viruses, chemical, physical and other factors. The course of pneumonia can be acute and protracted.
Acute pneumonia is partial, lobar (croupous pneumonia) and focal (partial, globular).
Croupous pneumonia - acute infectious disease, characterized by damage to the whole area of the lung (often lower) fibrinous inflammatory process. The cause of the inflammatory process is pneumococcus. In the emergence of croupous pneumonia, an important role is played by such factors as hypothermia, weakening of the body's resistance.
Clinical picture . Croupous pneumonia begins acutely. Three stages can be distinguished in its course.
The first stage (initial) begins with a chill, raising the body temperature to 39-40 ° C, headache. There is pain in the chest from the side of the damaged area of the lung, sometimes pain in the abdomen can simulate acute appendicitis. Cough in the beginning of the disease is dry, and after a few days appears bloody rusty sputum.
The second stage (the stage of the height of the disease) - comes intoxication of the body, the patient's condition is difficult. Breathing shallow, frequent, up to 30-40 breaths per 1 minute, acceleration of the heartbeat (tachycardia). At this stage, in case of a sharp drop in body temperature (crisis), acute vascular insufficiency (collapse) can occur.
The third stage (the decision stage) characterized by resorption of exudate in the alveoli.
Treatment of a patient with croupous pneumonia should be performed in a hospital.
Focal pneumonia is characterized by partial damage to the lung and the absence of a cyclical course of the disease characteristic of croupous pneumonia. The origin of focal pneumonia is caused by a secondary infection, the causative agents of which are contained in the upper respiratory tract (pneumococci, streptococci, staphylococci, viruses).
Focal pneumonia often occurs with the development of catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, influenza and other infectious diseases (measles, whooping cough, etc.), as well as chronic bronchitis, after operations in seriously ill patients, in the case of inhalation of various chemicals and foreign objects (aspiration pneumonia ).
Clinical picture of focal pneumonia characterized by the development of abnormal, or atypical fever, when diurnal fluctuations in body temperature are diverse, indeterminate, through which it is impossible to establish the type of temperature curve, lasts for several weeks, a violation of the general condition, shortness of breath, cough with the discharge of mucopurulent sputum.
Treatment of focal pneumonia
Patients with focal pneumonia are prescribed antimicrobials, expectorant, antipyretic, cardiac agents. After the normalization of body temperature, physiotherapeutic procedures, exercise therapy, and chest massage are performed.