1. Functional dysphonia
Treatment: specialized phoniatrics, reduction of the voice load, breathing exercises, sometimes psychotherapy.
2. Organic dysphonia
Causes: anatomical disorders and malformations, nodules of vocal folds, polyps of vocal cords, tumors, cysts, granulomas (post-indubation or with gastroesophageal reflux disease), contact ulcers, trauma, damage to vocal folds of the central (eg, defeat of the motor nucleus of the vagus nerve[сосуществуют дисфагия и першения], disease Parkinson's disease) and peripheral (most often with lesions of the recurrent laryngeal nerve when surgery on the thyroid gland, with mediastinal or bronchial tumors, aortic aneurysm or typhoid changes).
Symptoms of: aphonia or hoarseness, a change in voice quality, you need to make efforts for phonation.
Diagnostics: on the basis of laryngoscopy and stroboscopy (excitation of vibration and closure of vocal folds).
Conservative treatment rarely gives a positive effect; Microsurgical interventions and speech therapy rehabilitation are recommended.