Lungs are one of the frequent sites of localization of distant metastases, especially the following tumors: colorectal cancer, breast cancer, kidney cancer, melanoma, sarcoma of bones and soft tissues, less often lymphoma and lymphoblastic leukemia.
Symptoms of: small metastases do not cause noticeable symptoms. As the disease develops, chest pain, dyspnea, hemoptysis caused by tumor growth or complications (bronchial obstruction, atelectasis, pneumonia) can occur.
The diagnosis is: the main diagnostic method is the thoracic thoracic surgery; CT is more sensitive to identify radical changes and pathology in the mediastinum. The radiological picture is different: one or many round shadows, small changes like pulmonary lymphangiosis, atelectasis, enlarged basal or mediastinal lymph nodes, pleural effusion are common. In most cases, the radiological picture, in combination with a diagnosed cancer of another organ, allows you to diagnose metastases without the need for histological verification. In case of doubt, it may be necessary to perform a biopsy (percutaneous or transbronchial). Differential diagnosis : focus of primary lung tumor and TB.
Treatment of tumor metastases in the lungs
The wedge-shaped removal of a single metastasis within the healthy lung tissue (the most common operation with lung metastases) may be justified, especially after a long time after the primary tumor has been cured in patients with kidney, thyroid, large intestine or sarcoma and soft tissue, without metastases in other bodies (this is not an absolute criterion!). It is also possible to combine surgical removal of metastases (both in the lungs and in other organs) with other methods of their elimination. Radiation therapy is a method of palliative treatment of patients with bleeding, dyspnea, or pain caused by metastases to the lungs. With multiple metastases in the lungs of tumors with high sensitivity to chemotherapy, typical chemotherapy regimens are used for these tumors. Such treatment can lead to long-term cure for some tumors, for example. Hodgkin's lymphoma, chorion carcinoma and testicular tumor).