ICD is an international classification of diseases, and osteoarthritis (OA) is a group of diseases of various origins with similar morphological, biological and clinical manifestations and outcome. The basis of these pathologies is the damage to the cartilage and all components of the joint, including the subchondral portion of the bone, ligaments, synovial membrane, capsules, periarticular muscles.
According to the ICD, the code for this group of diseases is ICD-10:
In particular, Polyarthrosis is assigned code M15 arthrosis of the hip joint or coxarthrosis - M16 followed by arthrosis of the knee joint (gonarthrosis) - M17 arthrosis of the first carpometacarpal joint-M18 and other arthrosis have code M19.
According to statistics, these diseases affect 20% of the world's population, that is, one in five, and this occurs at the age of forty to sixty years. Signs of ostearthrosis are detected by X-ray methods for every second person over the age of fifty-five.
Gonarthrosis (knee joint) is more common in women, coxarthrosis (hip joint) - men.
The cause of the disease is a mismatch between the ability of the joint to resist a certain load and the very mechanical load. This ability, that is, the biological properties of cartilage, is genetically determined, but can change when they are affected by external and /or internal acquired factors.
Among the acquired factors include excessive body weight, acquired pathologies of joints and bones, as well as their injuries, operations, and female factors include estrogen deficiency in postmenopausal women.
The biological properties of cartilage deteriorate in conditions of predominance of catabolic processes over anabolic.
Classification of osteoarthrosis
According to the classification, the primary osteoarthritis is localized when less than three joints are affected, including the joints of the hands, feet, hips, knee joints, spine and other joints. In generalized osteoarthritis, three or more joints are affected. In this case, there is a lesion of proximal and distal interphalangeal joints, including lesion of large joints and erosive osteoarthritis.
There is also a secondary osteoarthritis, which is characterized by posttraumatic events, acquired, congenital, endemic diseases, metabolic diseases such as hemochromatosis, ochronosis, Gaucher's and Wilson-Konovalov's diseases, and endocrinopathies such as hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly, diabetes, hypothyroidism. Do not forget about neuropathy, calcium deposition disease (gyroxyapatite, calcium phosphate), and diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, avascular necrosis, Paget's disease and others.
According to roentgenological signs, osteoarthritis is classified:
Most of the patients complain of dull pain coming from the depth of the articular areas, which increase with physical activity, but at rest decrease.
The appearance of the inflammatory component is indicated by morning stiffness and pain at rest. The pain does not come from the cartilage, but from the bone, because of osteophytes and microinfarctions, is triggered by the inflammation of the synovial membrane, the periarticular tissues, for example, in tendinitis or local hypertension of the regional muscles.
The treatment of these diseases is aimed at reducing the severity of inflammation and pain, but it is also important to correct the changes in cartilage tissue.