Pituitary adenoma. The causes of the appearance and treatment of pituitary adenoma

Adenomas of the pituitary gland, or AH - are quite common tumors of the glandular tissue of a certain area of ​​the brain, called chiasmatic-selly. These tumors account for 18% of all brain tumors and are found in women and men alike. Half of adenomas occur at the age of 30-50 years.

All tumors of the pituitary gland can be divided into two types:

  • Epithelial neoplasms on the anterior part of the appendage of the brain - adenoma and pituitary cancer.

  • Tumors in the posterior lobe and funnel are gliomas, a granular cell tumor of the funnel.


  • 95 percent of all tumors of the pituitary gland are benign slow growing neoplasms.

    The causes of the appearance of adenomas of the pituitary gland



    The reasons for this phenomenon are not fully understood. It is only possible to name the factors predisposing to the appearance of adenomas of the pituitary gland. Such factors are:

  • various craniocerebral injuries;

  • adverse effects on the fetus during intrauterine development;

  • infectious processes that have arisen in the nervous system;

  • long-term use of oral contraceptives (questionable).


  • The pathogenesis of the adenomas of the pituitary gland has not been sufficiently studied.

    There are hormonal inactive adenomas (insidentaloma) and hormonally active



    Hormonal active pituitary adenomas:

  • somatotropin-producing - produce growth hormone somatotropin;

  • Prolactin-secreting - synthesize the hormone prolactin;

  • adrenocorticotropin-producing - secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone, which stimulates the work of the adrenal cortex;

  • tirotropinproduktsiruyuschie - produce thyrotropic hormone, which stimulates the thyroid gland;

  • gonadotropic - produce gonadotropic hormones that stimulate the sexual glands.


  • Adenomas of the pituitary gland



    In terms of their sizes,
    differ.
  • microadenomas - 1 mm - 2 cm in diameter;

  • macroadenomas - more than 2 cm in diameter.


  • Clinical manifestations of pituitary adenomas



    The clinical picture consists of endocrine-exchange syndrome, radiologic and ophthalmo-neurological symptoms.

  • thyrotoxicosis;

  • atrophy of the optic nerve;

  • suddenly worse headaches;

  • nasal congestion, discharge from the nose of cerebrospinal fluid;

  • violation of the menstrual cycle, infertility, amenorrhea, or a combination of symptoms in women;

  • sexual weakness in men;

  • an enlargement of the thyroid gland without disturbing the function;

  • obesity;

  • papillomas, warts;

  • severe sweating;

  • pain in the extremities, decreased sensitivity.


  • Treatment of adenomas of the pituitary gland



    Medicamentous treatment consists in taking Parlodel (Bromocriptine). In addition, radiotherapy methods are prescribed - gamma-therapy, remote radiation therapy, proton and radiosurgical method. The latter consists in the introduction of radioactive substances into the adenoma. If a visual impairment occurs, neurosurgical treatment is performed.

    Surgical treatment usually gives positive results.

    To what doctors to address?



  • oncologist

  • neurosurgeon