Acute pyelonephritis in children - traditional treatment has its own characteristics depending on the age. Acute pyelonephritis, this inflammatory kidney disease, caused by pathological bacteria, is characterized by the defeat of the capillary system, tubules and renal parenchyma.
Causes and mechanism of pyelonephritis and its further treatment
The causative agents of acute pyelonephritis in children are microbes that live in the intestine of a healthy person: E. coli, Proteus, Klebsiella, enterococci, sometimes golden or cutaneous Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Almost all of them have peculiar cilia, due to which they successfully move along the urinary tract and attach themselves to the cells of the urinary tract. Cilia prevent normal phagocytosis and good functioning of the immune system. All these bacteria in the course of their life secrete endotoxin, which has a pronounced effect on the smooth musculature of the urinary tract, disrupting their peristalsis until it stops completely, this facilitates a more free movement of the bacterial cell along the urinary tract.
All these disorders lead to a change in the pressure in the urinary tract, the emergence of reflux (reverse urine flow), which helps maintain the inflammatory process. The main way of penetration of bacteria in the urinary tract, it is lymphogenous, and the source of the intestines. And with repeated exacerbation there may already be a mixed flora.
The clinical picture of the course of pyelonephritis is folk treatment
The schoolchildren, in a typical case, girls are more often sick than boys and characterized by the appearance of pain in the waist or abdomen, the pain is not acute, increases with a change in body position, increased physical activity. When warming the intensity of pain decreases. Pain syndrome may be absent altogether, and can only be detected by palpation of the abdomen, in the ureter, kidneys. Pasternatsky's symptom is positive, it is checked by tapping in the waist in the area of the projection of the kidneys, there is soreness, after which the presence of blood in the urine is checked. There is an upset urination: soreness, frequent urge to urinate, itching in the perineum, bedwetting. Symptoms of intoxication: fever, chills, headache, lethargy, decreased appetite. As a rule, there is no edema in patients, blood pressure is normal. Urine can be with an unpleasant odor. In the analysis of urine there are leukocytes, epithelium, there can be protein, just blood in a small amount, salt. A blood test increases leukocytes, ESR, neutrophilia.
In children up to three years there are some differences, the boys and girls get sick the same way, general symptoms predominate: lethargy or severe anxiety, fever to high figures, against the background of general intoxication may appear meningic signs, seizures. There may be no appetite, constipation or diarrhea, sometimes jaundice of the skin. Violations from the direction of urination may be absent or are not expressed. In children under one year, generalization of infection (sepsis) is very rapid. Violation of the water-electrolyte balance, severe dehydration, intoxication, impaired adrenal gland function.
In adolescents, Signs of intoxication predominate: lethargy, headaches, poor appetite, fast fatigue, prolonged subfibrilitis, headaches, abdominal pains without definite localization. Violations of urination are not significant or may be completely absent.
Most children with acute pyelonephritis have foci of chronic infection: caries, chronic tonsillitis, adenoids, cholecystitis, vaginitis. Just can not ignore the fact that in the presence of an abnormality of the development of the kidneys and urinary tract, the frequency of acute pyelonephritis in children increases dramatically.
Folk Treatment of pyelonephritis in children
In the acute period, it is necessary to hospitalize the child with bed rest during the entire fever period and for 3-4 days after the body temperature has returned to normal.
The amount of liquid drunk in the acute period increases. If the child has symptoms of general intoxication, then infusion therapy begins in combination with diuretics, this method is called forced diuresis. The calculation of intravenous fluid is carried out depending on the age, and should exceed physiological standards by 1.5 times. The child receives additional liquid by drinking: tea, watermelon, juices, alkaline mineral water. Very useful fresh fruits, melons, zucchini, they have a diuretic property.
The diet should be more dairy-vegetable, animal proteins are limited, the amount of salt decreases. In other respects, the diet is strictly individual and depends on the type of salts in urine and their quantity. Fried and spicy dishes, products containing preservatives are excluded from food.
Considering the fact that acute pyelonephritis is an infectious-inflammatory disease, antibacterial therapy is prescribed with the definition of susceptibility to antibiotics and the isolation of pathogenic flora. Antibiotics of a wide spectrum of action are used: ampicillin, ampiox, cephalosporins I-II-III generations. Duration and dosage are determined individually. The general rule is used, it is necessary to hold 2-3 courses. At achievement of remission, it is necessary to appoint uroseptics: furagin, furadonin, nalidixic acid, etc. Are appointed or nominated it is long for some months sometimes about one year. After antibiotic therapy, a course of lacto or bifidobacterin is mandatory.
With pain, the appointment of antispasmodics is indicated: nose-pa, papaverine, baralgin. If there is reflux, then the regime of compulsory urination is practiced, for this during the day, urination should be squatting every 1.5-2 hours.
Treatment of acute pyelonephritis in children is of great importance, since the most important task is to prevent the process from becoming chronic, and to preserve the health of the younger generation.
Author: Valentina Koretskaya