The presence of bacteria in the urine is called bacteriuria. In a healthy state, urine is completely free of microorganisms. Bacteriuria suggests the presence of inflammatory processes in the kidney and urinary system. However, the presence of bacteria in the urine sediment after centrifugation is clinically important.
The character of bacteriuria is expressed by the designation - the titre of microbial bodies, which is 104-105 cfu in 1 milliliter of urine. When the titer grows to 104 cfu /ml, then I diagnose bacteriuria.
It should be borne in mind that such results have a conditional form, therefore, each separate clinical case needs to be adjusted.
Determine the violation can be in several ways: a reduction glucose test, a nitrite Griss test and a TTX test.
In polyclinics, chemical studies are used to obtain quick results. Quantitative bacteriological types of research make it possible to accurately determine the extent of disturbances and the number of bacterial colonies. There may be deviations in the results in case of abundant drinking, reception of uroseptics and so on. After the diagnosis is made, the type of microorganisms, their susceptibility to antibiotic drugs and sulfonamides are determined.
The causes of bacteriuria
If the kidneys are not sick and have no defects, then the bacteria can not get out of the blood into the urine. The disease is diagnosed in inflammatory processes in the kidneys with renal involvement of the parenchyma by bacteria, with infection of the bladder, inflammation of the prostate. In addition, the cause may be the provocation by catheterization of the ureters and bladder, the introduction of bougie into the urethra, examination of the inner part of the walls of the bladder (cystoscopy).
The forms of bacteriuria are different and acquire a severe type with such deviations:
The path of infection with bacteriuria can be downward and upward.
The first type is characterized by the ingress of pathogens from an inflamed bladder, an infected kidney, a prostate that has hyperplastic glandular tissue. Ascending form of urine infection is the entry of bacteria into urine due to improper catheterization, urological endoscopy - cystoscopy, bougie. The source can also become the large intestine and the vulva, if a person does not adhere to simple standards of personal hygiene.
The disease is fixed in case of such bacteria as streptococci, intestinal and pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci and proteins. Any kind of bacteria, after reaching the genitourinary system, provokes inflammation of the urinary system or kidneys. Infection can occur in some areas of the colon, causing proctitis. Bacteriuria is noted in people suffering from permanent constipation, hemorrhoids. Not so often the disease occurs in people with brucellosis, abdominal typhoid, paratyphoid and leptospirosis - due to the fact that these diseases are not so prevalent.
Symptomatic of bacteriuria
Bacteriuria manifests itself against the background of the disease that caused it. Often it is fixed with pyelonephritis and cystitis.
In addition, bacteriuria may indicate the presence of such diseases:
For this list of diseases, the symptoms are nonspecific, they make it possible to determine nosology only through laboratory tests of urine.
Symptoms that are similar to those that indicate pyelonephritis:
Symptoms similar to those of urethritis:
Symptoms of the disease, similar to the signs of cystitis:
True and false bacteriuria
True bacteriuria is characterized by the ingress of microorganisms into the urinary tract, followed by reproduction and the evocation of an acute inflammatory process.
The false form of bacteriuria is characterized by the ingress of microorganisms into the bladder and ureters, but in the future they do not multiply and do not affect the cells due to the patient's normal immunity or taking antibiotics at the moment due to inflammation.
Hidden and asymptomatic type of bacteriuria
A hidden type of the disease is often diagnosed at the time of scheduled clinical examination in patients with no complaints of the bladder, urination and kidneys.
In most cases, the asymptomatic type of the disease is diagnosed in the female. If men have found asymptomatic bacteriuria during the monitoring survey, an additional search for hidden prostatitis should be carried out. In addition, often latent bacteriuria is diagnosed in patients 65 years of age and older - in this case it has a chronic multi-year form. In most cases, men have asymptomatic bacteriuria with prostatic hyperplasia and a deviation in the functioning of the urine outflow, in which the number of pathogens increases. In elderly people, this indicator is usually not a threat, because the studied bacteria are pathogenic.
Treatment of bacteriuria
The presence of any type of bacteria in urine indicates the likelihood of inflammation in the urogenital system. The definition of medications for the treatment of a disease depends on the complexity of the disease, the age of the patient and his condition.
Inflammation of the severe form is treated with the newest antibiotics of a wide range of effects with a minimized list of adverse effects. For the treatment of chronic inflammations, additional microorganism tests for bacteriuria will be required, as well as an antibioticogram to determine the susceptibility of the microorganisms of the infectious-inflammatory disease to antimicrobial agents.
Neutralize the disorder does not follow people with diabetes, with a urinary catheter, the elderly and young people who have organic abnormalities of the urinary system. If immunosuppression is not observed, then such treatment is also not necessary, but only in the absence of structural anomalies of the urinary tract. It is worth emphasizing that sometimes, when antibiotic therapy is carried out, the normal flora is replaced by a pathogenic one.