At an early stage of hydrocephalus of the brain, drug therapy is used. However, with the help of medications, you can only reduce intracranial pressure in hydrocephalus syndrome (fluid accumulation against increased intracranial pressure and increased head volume) or slow the progression of the disease.
If the disease progresses, surgery is necessary. Surgical treatment was successful in 85% of cases.
Until recently, for the control of the disease, the only method was the introduction of special shunts - a system of valves and silicone thin tubes-catheters (ventriculo-peritoneal bypass). On the catheter tubes, spinal fluid was discharged into the abdominal cavity, which kept the optimal pressure in my head, and the cerebrospinal fluid was not allowed to flow in the opposite direction. After surgery, the adult patient could return to normal life.
The negative side of the method is the excessively small diameter of the shunt, because of which it easily clogged and bent. After several years, the bypass system could fail and required a partial or complete replacement, which must be carried out without delay. This caused problems if the patient lived far from a specialized clinic.
Methods of treatment of hydrocephalus in children
In children with hydrocephalus of the brain, a shunt audit is performed two to three times, which is associated with the child's growing up and the growth of his head. With the congenital form of the disease, hydrocephalus treatment of the brain is longer than with the acquired form in adults. It is aimed at correction of congenital complications of hydrocephalus.
A new method of operating brain hydrocephalus is neuroendoscopic. In the Western countries, it is widely used, and in the post-Soviet space - quite rare, which is due to the lack of experience of doctors and the high cost of equipment.
This method is reliable and low traumatic. If the shunt operation lasts an hour or two, then the neuroendoscopic surgery takes 10-20 minutes. She has minimal postoperative complications and a rather fast rehabilitation period. A special device (neuroendoscope) that contains a miniature camera comes into the channels of the brain. The image from the camera is transmitted to the screen, so that the doctors can see where the tools are needed to restore the outflow of liquid. The essence of the operation is to create an outflow of liquor to the cerebrospinal fluid reservoirs through the bottom of the third ventricle. A special catheter is created by the newly formed opening, and the cerebrospinal fluid flows out of the brain without any obstacles. No longer is it necessary to replace parts or repeat operations, a person is saved forever.
Prevention of cerebral hydrocephalus
A common cause of hydrocephalus is infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system and trauma. Therefore, it is necessary to adhere to the appropriate rules of work and rest to avoid such troubles.
During pregnancy, you should regularly see a doctor to reduce the possibility of premature birth, which increases the risk of hydrocephalus and other complications in the child.
It is necessary to protect the child from head injuries, to check for safety all children's devices (swings, walkers, beds), to monitor their correspondence to the age and level of development of the child. When traveling in a car, use the child's appropriate age and size, correctly installed, child seats.