As is known, the placenta is a temporary organ formed from the surrounding membrane of the fetal egg, called chorion. Chorion during pregnancy develops and is transformed into a placenta (a child's place). The placenta is attached to the uterus, and this attachment can be in different places of the uterus. One of the locations of placenta attachment during pregnancy is low. In addition to low possible attachment to the front wall of the uterus, along the back wall of the uterus.
Low is the location of the placenta, in which the lower edge of the placenta is less than 5 cm from the internal pharynx (entrance to the cervix). This can be seen in the third trimester of pregnancy. That is, a distant threat is created that the inner pharynx can be closed by the placenta, because of which the delivery process may become difficult
This arrangement of the placenta is characteristic during pregnancy in many women. But to panic in such a situation prematurely - the placenta physiologically behaves correctly - eventually rises and releases the entrance to the cervix. This behavior of the placenta is called in midwifery by the migration of the placenta. The migration process usually takes place at 6-10 weeks of pregnancy and ends at 33-34 weeks. Therefore, during the ultrasound at the beginning of pregnancy, it is necessary to specify the location of the placenta. And if a low location of the placenta is detected, it is necessary to conduct DEI - a dynamic echographic study. Control in the form of ultrasound should also be carried out in other weeks of pregnancy - 16 and also from 24 to 26 weeks and at 34-36 weeks.
The low location of the placenta is due to a variety of causes, the most common of which is the pathology of the endometrium - the inner layer lining the uterus. Pathological changes in the endometrium may occur as a result of curettage or caesarean section, inflammation, removal of the myomatous node, and also due to multiple complicated births. Underdevelopment of the uterus, uterine fibroids, Isthmiko-cervical insufficiency, multiple pregnancy and inflammation of the cervix can also cause low attachment of the placenta. For the first-born, the risk of such an arrangement of the placenta is practically reduced to zero.
Symptoms of low location of the placenta are manifested by blood secretions. Bloody discharge from the genital tract can appear during pregnancy at different times, beginning with the earliest, which can lead to anemia. With a low attachment of the placenta, pregnancy can be complicated by the emergence of a threat of miscarriage, which is due to the same reasons. Pregnant women with low placental location usually have low blood pressure, late gestosis, placental insufficiency, that is, a lack of oxygen in the fetus.