Low placentation in pregnancy: causes, symptoms

Low placentation - a variety of placenta praevia, indicating that the fetal egg is attached close to the exit from the uterus. About low placentation during pregnancy is reported on the first ultrasound, regardless of the period at which it is done - at 6 or 12 weeks.

Low placentation in pregnancy is considered the placement of the lower edge of the placenta below 6 centimeters from the internal pharynx, but the significance is two or less centimeters, because this determines the course of pregnancy and the forthcoming delivery is spontaneous or with the help of caesarean section.

The causes of low placenta

The reasons for low presentation of the placenta have not yet been established. Significance has a change in the inner mucous layer of the uterus, which is caused by abortions, inflammation, previous births. Changes in the endometrium prevent the introduction of a fertilized egg in the right place, the site of implantation is shifted. The risk factor can be a large number of births, scar on the uterus after cesarean section, placenta previa during the previous pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, smoking, age over 35 years, even a cold in the period when the fetal egg is attached to the uterine wall. However, often the true cause of placenta previa is unknown.

In the early stages of pregnancy, the final diagnosis is premature. Since with the growth of the uterus the placenta up to the most childbirth rises, perhaps in the last trimester the problem of low placentation simply disappears, which is observed in 90% of pregnant women with such a diagnosis. If the placenta rises more than 6 centimeters from the cervix to the onset of labor, it can be considered normal. If a little lower - also not so scary, medical specialists produce an early opening of the fetal bladder, the child's head leaves pressing the placenta, preventing its detachment. Childbirth occurs usually, the risk of bleeding is not greater than with normal location of the placenta.

If the low placentation persists throughout the entire pregnancy, and at 39-40 weeks the placenta is located closer than 2 centimeters to the inner throat - this is an indication to the caesarean section.

What is the risk of low placenta?

  • Since the placenta is located almost at the exit from the uterus, and the child grows and becomes more active, pressure on the placenta increases. Sharp movements, any physical exertion, further increase the pressure on it and can provoke bleeding.

  • During labor, the uterine muscles contract, it contracts and decreases in volume. And the placenta does not contract, its blood vessels connected to the uterus wall, straining, can tear and cause a very dangerous condition - premature placental abruption, which is always accompanied by heavy bleeding.

  • For a child, low placenta can also be dangerous. There are fewer blood vessels at the bottom of the uterus, so the fetus may suffer from a shortage of oxygen and nutrients, as a result of which its development will be inhibited.

  • Pregnant women with low placenta should avoid sudden movements, physical exertion, jumps; to abstain from a sexual life; in the supine or sitting position, the legs should be given an elevated position, which improves blood circulation.

    With the appearance of blood secretions, emergency hospitalization is necessary.