Preparation of the psyche for childbirth. The method of psycho-preventive preparation of pregnant women for childbirth
The method was developed by a group of Kharkov scientists headed by Professor KK Platonov in 1948. This method is still widely used by medical institutions of our country and some European countries (Romania, Czech Republic, Italy, France, etc.)
It includes three components of the action. The first - conversations, both group and individual, taking into account the psychological state of a woman, with a thorough clarification of an anamnesis. The second - group exercises by gymnastics under the guidance of the instructor's instructor and under the supervision of the obstetrician-gynecologist. The third - the use of natural factors (light, air, water) to strengthen and temper the body and the use of physical therapy.
Prenatal psycho-preventive training is conducted in the women's consultation and includes six sessions.
The first lesson (individual).
Acquaintance with the peculiarities of the personality of the pregnant woman (family circumstances, training, various diseases, labor activity, peculiarities of pregnancy, etc.), the relation of the pregnant woman to the childbirth, the course of previous births, abortions.
All other classes are group.
2 lessons. Pregnancy and childbirth are a physiological process.
Hygiene of pregnancy . The structure of the female genitalia and changes in them during pregnancy. General idea of the periods of childbirth.
3 lessons. Preparation for the first period of labor.
Signs of the onset of labor, what are contractions, the mechanism of opening the cervix. Self-hopping techniques are presented:
- Deep breathing;
- Stroking the skin of the abdomen and rubbing the waist;
- Pressing the points of anesthesia (the inner surface of the antero-superior sides of the iliac bones or the outer corners of the Michaelis rhombus).
4 lessons. Preparation for the second period of labor.
Signs of the onset of the second stage of labor, the mechanism of birth. They teach the pregnant woman how to behave in the second stage of labor. Training in carrying out attempts (attachments on the back, pressing the lower jaw to the chest, pressing the hips to the stomach, holding the breath). Learn the rules of behavior at the time of removal of the fetal head (deep breathing, throwing the reins). Give a presentation to the pregnant woman about the III-st period of childbirth and the peculiarities of the behavior of a woman, which contribute to its correct flow.
5 and 6 lessons. Joy of motherhood.
Classes are devoted to the postnatal period and the period of newborns.
During the patronage visit by a midwife and at regular receptions, the acquired knowledge of psycho-preventive preparation is fixed in the woman's mind.
Influence on the psyche of a pregnant woman should be combined with physical training. Use a special set of gymnastic exercises, conducted by a specially trained midwife or doctor. In addition, it is useful to combine this with the general ultraviolet radiation of a pregnant woman, especially in the winter and spring months, which increases the functional state of the nervous system and endocrine glands, increases the body's resistance to infections, and helps to normalize vitamin metabolism. UFO is conducted according to the methodology proposed by AA Lebedev. Up to 16 weeks - 10 sessions with an intensity of 025-125 biodos; in the period of gestation 16-31 weeks - 10 sessions with an intensity of 125-1.3 biodozy; in 32-40 weeks - 20 sessions with an intensity of 1.5-2.5 biodos.
Psychoprophylactic preparation of pregnant women for childbirth should be combined with physical exercises, which are recommended to be carried out from the very beginning of pregnancy. Their goal is to improve blood circulation and oxygenation of both the fetus and the mother. The complex of exercises depends on the period of pregnancy. Physical fitness is recommended in the morning before meals or 1-2 hours after breakfast, in a special, uncomplicated movement of clothing. The duration of classes should not exceed 15-20 minutes. If physical exercises cause a feeling of fatigue, worsening of breathing, increased heart rate, it is necessary to relieve them and consult a doctor. Of the complex exercises should be excluded jumps, considerable grief, sharp movements. Physical training can be recommended only to healthy women in the normal course of pregnancy.
In addition, the pregnant woman should use other means of hardening: walks in the fresh air, swimming in the river and the sea, air metered baths.
Great importance is the stay of pregnant women in holiday homes and sanatoriums. Preparation for childbirth, which began in a women's consultation, then continues in the hospital.