Natural or breastfeeding - feeding by putting the baby to the breast of his biological mother.
A healthy baby is first applied to the breast no later than 2 hours after childbirth, preferably immediately or within the first 30 minutes after childbirth. Early application of the newborn to the breast, "skin" contact with the mother ensures the continuation of the biological connection between the mother and the child, the adaptation of the newborn to the conditions of an unsterile outside of the uterine environment. This process occurs due to the receipt of colostrum with a large number of protective factors and colonization of the skin, mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract by the microorganisms of the mother, form the necessary biocenosis in the child. Later application of the baby at the breast contributes to the primary massive colonization of the non-bifidogenic, but conditionally pathogenic and nosocomial flora.
Contraindications to breastfeeding
Contraindications to the early application of the child from the mother: severe infectious and somatic diseases in the acute stage, operative delivery, bleeding during labor, severe late gestosis.
Contraindications from the child: an Apgar score below 7 points, a newborn asphyxia, an intracranial birth trauma, a hemolytic disease of a newborn, a deep prematurity. In order not to cause a child disorientation of the act of sucking and a violation of the natural sucking reflex, you need to use bottles with a pacifier for pre-feeding.
The joint stay of the mother and child in the hospital ensures the possibility of feeding the child on demand, which is one of the fundamental conditions for the development of normal lactation. Later the baby is fed every 2.5-3 hours 7-8 times a day (6912 151821 24 hours). In 1.5-2 months begin to feed the child 6 times (6; 930; 13; 1630; 20; 2330). From 5 months to 1.5 years the child is fed 5 times (61014 1822 hours). A free feeding regime is also permissible, which stimulates lactation.
Technique of breastfeeding
Breastfeeding is a kind of ritual: the child is undressed, promotes his movements, then the baby is swaddled. The mother washes her hands, processes the nipple with boiled water, makes several massaging movements along the chest, and expresses a few drops of milk. With one hand the mother holds the child, the second supports the breast, so that the nipple is accessible to the child, and the chest does not stop breathing through the nose. It must be ensured that the child does not swallow air. After feeding, it is necessary to give the infant a vertical position, so that the air goes away. After that, the child is put in bed on his side. Breastfeeding requires certain hygienic skills from a woman.
Hygiene in breastfeeding
This is the performance of general hygiene: a daily shower, a daily change of linen. Compulsory thorough washing of hands before each feeding of the child. At the same time, breast washing before each feeding of the baby, especially with soap, is not required, as it leads to the removal of the natural secretion of the glands from the areola, which contributes to the drying of the nipple skin and the formation of cracks.
After discharge from the sex hospital, the responsibility for organizing breastfeeding is assigned to pediatricians and nurses of children's polyclinics. The offices of a healthy child should be the centers of lactation maintenance, they should have picturesque and visual posters, stands, brochures, memos that would promote breastfeeding. Advertising of infant formulas for artificial feeding of children is not acceptable.
How to determine the dose of food for a newborn?
Determination of the need for food according to the formula A.N. The scale. At the age of 8 weeks, I must eat 800 ml of milk per day. For every week that does not reach up to 8 weeks, the amount of milk is reduced by 50 ml: 800-50x (8-n), where n is the number of weeks of the baby. With each subsequent month, the amount of milk increases by 50 ml: 800 +50 x (n-2), where n is the number of months of the baby.
The volumetric method: a child from 2 to 6 weeks, should receive a day, respectively, 1/5 of the body weight, from 6 months. up to 4 months - 1/6 of the body weight, from 4 to 6 months - 1/7 of the body weight.
The caloric method takes into account the age-related calorie requirement, its actual body weight and calorie content of a liter of breast milk (700 kcal). In 6 months and later the child receives 1 liter of milk along with the bait.
The order and term of complementary feeding
The procedure and term for the introduction of physiological nutritional factors (nutritional supplements). Fruit and vegetable juices are prescribed after breastfeeding, starting at 4 months (sometimes recommended from 5-6 months). After 2 weeks in the diet, you need to enter fruit puree (apple, peach, banana, etc.). Steeply cooked yolk start to enter from 6 months (1/5 yolk), at 7 months - 1/4 yolk, 9 months. - 1/2 yolk). Cheese is prescribed from 6 months to 10-25 g, increasing to 50 g in a one-year-old child. Oil is prescribed for 1-3 ml from 5 months, butter - from 6 months to 1-4 g.
Feeding - the introduction of new food containing the ingredients necessary for the correct physical and psychomotor development of the body and successively replaces feeding with breast milk . Feeding is introduced in small portions, before breastfeeding and for 10-15 days it is increased to full volume. You can not simultaneously enter two new dishes, it is not recommended to give one dish twice a day. All dishes should be well wiped, homogeneous. The first feeding should begin at 5 months of age with vegetable puree, as a rule, for the second feeding (10 hours), after 2-4 weeks the second lure (5% porridge), for the fourth feeding (16 hours) is appointed. First use the porridge without gluten (rice, buckwheat, corn). The third lure should introduce into the body of the child the necessary substances that are in the meat (meat lure). Beginning from 7-8 months of age, the baby is appointed for 14 hours soup puree with minced meat or meat puree, and from 8-9 months shows fish soup with fish minced meatballs. After 8 months for 18 hours, you can assign cheese (30-40 g) with yoghurt (kefir 150 ml), or fruktovosirkovu mass. Crackers and biscuits recommend appointing from 7-8 months, white bread - from 8-9 months.
Feeding a baby with breastmilk substitutes is called artificial.
Causes of artificial feeding: cerebrovascular accident, deep prematurity, congenital heart defects with circulatory disorders, respiratory distress syndrome, galatotosemia, severe forms of alaktasia, congenital malformations of the oral cavity, severe maternal diseases (open forms of tuberculosis, malignant diseases, renal and hepatic insufficiency, severe acute diseases).