Breast milk has a low protein content (1.2-1.4%, in cow milk - 3.2%). However, proteins of female milk are very close to proteins of the child's tissues and therefore rarely cause allergic complications.
Proteins contain all the necessary amino acids, consist mainly of whey proteins (albumins, globulins), casein occupies only 20% of the total protein content. The biological value of proteins of women's milk is 100%, and cow's milk - 50%. In cow's milk, protein is more (3.2%), but it contains a lot of casein (80%) and little (20%) whey proteins. In serum fractions, there are immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, lysozyme, ribonucleic acid, taurine, which is involved in the formation of cells of the nervous system and vision. Fat of human milk is 98% composed of triglycerides, contains polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, arachidonic, etc.).
Vitamins, vitamin-like substances (retinol, tocopherol, vitamin D, etc.). In breast milk are needed for normal growth and the production of minerals and trace elements (iron, copper, cobalt, zinc).
The main carbohydrate of breast milk is lactose, it provides the growth of bifidoflora (in cow's milk (3-lactose) .In addition, breast milk contains Bifi-dos factor, oligoaminocucor, whose quantity in breast milk is 40 times greater than that of cows, Bifidus- the factor stimulates the growth of bifidobacteria.The composition of breast milk includes hormones (steroids, TTG, T3 T4 growth factors, etc.), more than 30 enzymes (lipase, trypsin, diastase, amylase, protease, catalase, etc.). All known classes of immunoglobulins that are found in breast milk are the most important e contains secretory Ig A. In breast milk there are lymphocytes (T and B cells), factors of nonspecific defense (lactoferrin, lysozyme, components of C3 C4 complement, lactoperoxidase, macrophages) In addition, breastmilk the child receives warm and sterile Breastfeeding provides a psychophysiological interrelation of the mother-child system.Thread milk is the gold standard for eating infants.Therefore, WHO and UNICEF formulated 10 principles of successful breastfeeding:
10 principles of successful breastfeeding
1. Have a written policy on the practice of feeding and regularly bring it to the attention of all medical and sanitary personnel.
2. Train medical and sanitary personnel in the necessary skills to implement this policy.
3. Inform all pregnant women about the benefits and methods of breastfeeding.
4. To help mothers start breastfeeding in the first half hour after childbirth.
5. Teach mothers how to breastfeed and how to maintain lactation even if they are isolated from their children for medical reasons.
6. Do not give newborn any other food or drink.
7. Practice a 24-hour joint stay of the mother and newborn in one ward.
8. Encourage natural feeding.
9. Do not give newborns who are naturally breastfed, no artificial objects that imitate the breast or soothe.
10. Encourage the formation of support groups for natural feeding and refer mothers to these groups after discharge from the hospital.
Feeding the baby with breast milk and additionally introduced mixtures - substitutes for lack of breast milk is called mixed. Dependence on the amount of breast milk on the effectiveness of mixed feeding may approximate either to the natural (a mixture of less than 1/5 of the food), or to the artificial (breast milk is less than 1/5 the volume of food).
Causes of mixed feeding: hypogalactia, mastitis, social and living conditions. With hypogalactia, a check weigh is used to determine the lack of milk. Supplementary introduction of the mixture instead of lack of breast milk is called a supplement.
Supplementary rules: supplementation is prescribed after application to both breasts; the mixture is introduced gradually, increasing its quantity; do not recommend feeding the baby from the bottle through the nipple, because the baby can give up the breasts, it is better to feed from a spoon or make a small hole in the nipple; simultaneously it is necessary to stimulate lactation.
Juices, fruit purees, egg yolk and lure are prescribed in the same sequence, only 1-2 weeks earlier.