When the fetus is in the womb, its lungs are filled with liquid and do not work. Occasionally they perform "training" breathing movements, however, oxygen does not flow through them.
The only way of getting oxygen for the baby is the placenta, which itself receives it from the blood of the mother. When something is broken in this chain, the oxygen starvation of the fetus begins, this is hypoxia.
Hypoxia, this is certainly an extremely harmful pathological condition, and here the period of the onset of hypoxia and its duration are very important, this is a factor for the future baby. The earlier the hypoxia begins and the longer it lasts - the worse. If hypoxia occurred early in pregnancy, it is fraught with serious deviations in the development of organs, especially the brain of the baby.
Complications of fetal hypoxia
Dangerous hypoxia and late pregnancy, because in this state for the baby, it becomes problematic to correct and timely development, because with deficiency of oxygen, there is necessarily a delay in intrauterine development. Severe hypoxia, which developed late in the period, is able to require an early cesarean section.
Severe hypoxia, in which almost complete cessation of oxygen supply is observed, it is already asphyxiation of the fetus, which, in practice, is a strangulation. It is a consequence of complications, such as repeated entanglement of the umbilical cord, premature detachment of the placenta, infringement of the umbilical cord and a number of others.
Causes of hypoxia in pregnancy
Possible causes of hypoxia may be certain pathological conditions of the mother. For example, it can be asthma, bronchitis, and other lung diseases, anemia (low blood hemoglobin), diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, smoking during pregnancy, and a number of other conditions and factors.
On the part of the fetus, hypoxia can be caused by intrauterine infections, congenital malformations, fetoplacental insufficiency.
Unfortunately, in early terms it is almost impossible to reliably determine hypoxia. However, if there is anemia in the mother and a number of other diseases, one can assume its development.
When the baby is already actively moving in the uterus, somewhere after the eighteenth week, the mother can already feel the decrease in the activity of the baby, to suspect hypoxia. You should immediately consult a doctor if the fetal movements are felt less often and become lethargic.
Ultrasound and diagnosis of fetal development
At check during ultrasonic research it is possible to define a delay in development of a fetus that is appreciable on backlog of its sizes and weight from normal parameters.
Dopplerometry can detect a decrease in blood flow in the uterine arteries and placenta, a decrease in the fetal heart rate, which is regarded as baricordia.
On CTG (cardiotography), which is carried out after the thirtieth week, it is possible to diagnose hypoxia on a general score (less than eight) of the fetus index (more than one), to reduce the basal heart rate (less than 110 at rest and less than 130 at movements). However, CTG often produces a large number of false-positive results, in which hypoxia is diagnosed even in its absence. If a bad or suspicious analysis is received, it is very reasonable to re-do the research the next day.
Complicated cases require the use of other diagnostic methods, in particular, amnioscopy and sampling of blood from the skin of the fetal head.
Prevention of hypoxia
To successfully fight against hypoxia and try to prevent it, pregnant women should make more walks in the fresh air. Fresh air is not only prevention, but also treatment of mild hypoxia. Similar walks can successfully replace any oxygen cocktails.
In addition, it is very useful in the threat of such a state to engage in swimming or aquagymnastics, but at the same time one must be sure that there is no threat of miscarriage or an increased tone of the uterus.
More serious situations require hospitalization, where drugs such as Actovegin, Curantil, Trental are used to solve this problem. Use and oxygen cocktail and a number of drugs, the composition of which is determined by concomitant diseases. In particular, with increased tone, the uterus is given no-shpu, magnesia, ginipral.