Bronchial asthma - a chronic disease, an inflammatory nature, accompanied by attacks of dyspnea. The emergence and development of the disease contribute to both external and internal factors.
External factors - it's all sorts of allergens, increased physical exertion, as well as climatic conditions; internal factors - defects of the immune or endocrine systems, heredity.
The exposure of the allergen disrupts the ventilation of the lungs and complicates the patency of the airways, wheezing, dyspnea appear. Most clearly these signs are manifested at night and in the mornings, the attack lasts, usually, not more than an hour.
Epidemiology of bronchial asthma in pregnancy
Recently, the number of people with bronchial asthma has increased significantly. According to the conclusion of WHO, the disease belongs to the most common chronic ailments: 8-10% of adults and about 15% of children suffer from asthma. Eight million people in Russia have a diagnosis: bronchial asthma. And their number every year, unfortunately, only increases.
Bronchial asthma affects mainly women, among those who are sick twice as much as men. Most often, the first symptoms begin at an early age. And this means that a large number of people of reproductive age suffer from asthma.
Prevalence of bronchial asthma in pregnancy
About 8% of pregnant women have a diagnosis - bronchial asthma. This disease is not a contraindication for the bearing of a child, but sometimes leads to complication of the pregnancy process. Women with this complex disease, at all times of pregnancy should be registered with the therapist, undergo all the necessary regular studies. Pregnant women can be threatened by the following complications: gestosis in half the cases, feto-placental insufficiency, also in half the cases, the threat of termination of pregnancy, quite often.
The following diseases can develop in newborns:
Symptoms of bronchial asthma in pregnancy
Typical symptoms of bronchial asthma:
The presence of these symptoms in the complex provides the basis for the diagnosis. Bronchial asthma can be genetically conditioned. If a woman has close relatives with a similar diagnosis, it is likely that she herself may develop the disease.
Inpatient studies are carried out. Most often measure the level of functionality of internal breathing (measurement of expiratory volume per second), make chest radiography, identify allergens that provoke seizures and cause obstruction.
Diagnosis of bronchial asthma in pregnancy
Pregnant women make an assessment of lung function and the reversibility of its disorders. At the same time, to more accurately assess the activity of the respiratory tract, the dynamics of the speed indicators are measured.
For a more accurate assessment of the degree of obstruction, it is necessary to measure the volume of the so-called forced expiratory flow (FEV) in one second, as well as to determine the forced vital capacity of the lungs, while measuring the maximum amount of air that the patient can exhale after inhaling as deeply as possible ).
This examination is performed using a spirometer. The values obtained are important to correlate with the patient's age and growth. Then the volume of lungs is compared with the volume of their vital capacity, with normal functioning of the lung this ratio should exceed 80%, low indications diagnose bronchial obstruction. At home, a peak-flow meter is used for this purpose, it can be used to assess the degree of impairment of lung activity. The measurements are taken in the morning and in the evening, the unevenness of the indices indicates the degree of the disease, and the magnitude of their deviations can determine the severity of the disease
Treatment of bronchial asthma in pregnancy
Bronchial asthma in women during pregnancy is treated by normalizing the function of internal breathing, preventing exacerbations of the disease and the side effects of the use of medications. For pregnant women a special treatment scheme for the disease is being developed.
Medical support in most cases will be necessary. The main treatment includes bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory procedures. Respiratory gymnastics and inhalations are carried out to moisten the mucosa, as expectorants and to stimulate the cough. A pregnant woman can prescribe a set of therapeutic gymnastic exercises, swimming. In some cases, acupuncture is prescribed.
Treatment of this lung disease in women takes into account the degree of severity and depends on the level of working capacity of the lungs during pregnancy, for their function it is necessary to observe during the entire period of pregnancy, doing this with the help of peakflowmetry. In the third trimester of pregnancy there is a threat of complication of the disease. In such cases, the patient is hospitalized.