At the first consultation, the doctor conducts an external examination of the pregnant and an examination on the chair. It is necessary to determine the condition of the vaginal and cervical wall, take a smear of the vaginal discharge to exclude trichomonatal colpitis, gonorrhea and thrush, and the contents of the cervical canal for the detection of infections that are sexually transmitted.
Then a series of mandatory studies are performed and tests are taken in pregnant women.
Urinalysis in pregnant women surrenders at registration, after 30 weeks of pregnancy - before each visit to the doctor. Urine examination can reveal abnormalities during pregnancy. Acetone may appear due to vomiting in toxicosis and signals a violation of the liver. In the presence of sugar in the urine, research is prescribed that helps to exclude diabetes. In the second half of pregnancy, protein in the urine may appear, which, in combination with swelling and increased pressure, indicates nephropathy (gestosis of pregnant women). An increased number of leukocytes and the presence of bacteria is a sign of pyelonephritis or cystitis (inflammation of the kidneys and bladder).
For analysis in the morning after washing, an average portion of urine is collected, closing the entrance to the vagina with a cotton swab.
Clinical analysis of blood in pregnant women take in the morning from the finger. Do not eat fatty foods the night before. This analysis is given on an empty stomach at the first visit, on the 20th and 30th weeks of pregnancy, if necessary - more often.
The level of hemoglobin below 110 indicates anemia in a woman, her child does not receive the necessary amount of oxygen and nutrients and may lag behind in development. An increased level of leukocytes (more than 9) is a sign of infection. Lowering the platelet count to less than 180 will require additional studies of blood clotting capacity to prevent massive bleeding during labor.
Blood test on the Wasserman reaction (RW) is necessary to exclude syphilis. In the morning on an empty stomach take blood from the vein. The analysis is carried out three times - on the first visit, on the 30th week of pregnancy and before childbirth.
Analysis [/b]on the Rh factor and group blood take one time from the ulnar vein. If a pregnant woman has Rh-negative blood type and her husband is positive, in the second half of pregnancy each month it is necessary to check blood for Rh-antibodies.
Blood test on the HBS-antigen spend to determine viral hepatitis B, the blood is taken from the ulnar vein in the first visit to the doctor and at 28 - 30 weeks.
Blood test for HIV infection in pregnant women they give it on an empty stomach, blood is taken from the ulnar vein. Such a study is performed twice - on the first visit and on the 30th week of pregnancy.
[b] Analysis blood on TORCH-infection - Rubella, mycoplasma, toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus, herpes can lead to fetal malformations. When they are detected, the doctor prescribes a special therapy.
Blood test for sugar It is necessary if sugar is present in the urine and there is a suspicion of diabetes mellitus. The analysis is repeated when there are indications.
Ultrasound in pregnant women spend to establish a normally developing pregnancy that corresponds to the timing and is not accompanied by a threat of interruption or pathology. It is done three times - up to 15 weeks of pregnancy, at 18 - 24 weeks, at 32 - 36 weeks, if there are indications - more often.
Coagulogram determines the state of blood coagulability, revealing a tendency to bleeding or thrombosis. The analysis is repeated only according to the indications.
Electrocardiogram (ECG) will be required to evaluate the functioning of the cardiovascular system. In the future, the ECG is performed only on indications.
Smear from the vagina the flora provides an opportunity to assess the condition of the birth canal. It is carried out on the first visit, on the 30th and 36th weeks of pregnancy.
Sowing from the nose to determine the carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and to prevent infection of the child.
Colposcopy - examination of the cervix and vagina, is carried out only on indications.
Analysis of feces in pregnant women on helminth eggs.