Feeling of weakness, tinnitus, palpitations, dizziness, fatigue even with a little physical exertion, uncaused headaches - often this is how the decrease in hemoglobin, the main carrier of oxygen in the blood. When the level of this substance falls in the red blood cells (red blood cells), or when the amount of the erythrocytes themselves is lower than normal, anemia, or simply anemia, arises. In this state, the red blood cells are not enough to deliver the amount of oxygen needed by the body, and this contributes to the deterioration of the woman's well-being. Let's talk about the disease of anemia in a pregnant woman.
It is important to note that anemia in pregnancy is - one of the most common diseases among expectant mothers, the frequency of its occurrence in the world is from 15 to 80%. Anemia complicates the course of pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period, affects the development of the fetus. The danger for the child is a delay in his fetal development, as a result the child can be born immature, with low weight and subsequently will be more susceptible to infections.
What are the symptoms of anemia in pregnancy?
Often, toxicosis of the second half of pregnancy joins (there is edema, blood pressure rises), the risk of premature birth and placental insufficiency increases, and the weakness of labor is more often. In the puerperium, the production of breast milk decreases. Anemia of pregnant women is a consequence of many reasons, including those that existed before pregnancy. Provoke its development can chronic diseases, frequent childbirth, prolonged breastfeeding, profuse menstruation and vegetarianism. During pregnancy other factors join. For example, eating disorders due to early toxicosis, which prevents absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of the elements necessary for hematopoiesis, multiparty, polyhydramnios, etc.
In 9 expectant mothers out of 10 anemia is iron deficient, i.e. is due to a lack of iron in the body. If, before pregnancy, an adult woman is enough to receive 10-20 mg of iron per day, then during the waiting period of the baby this need rises to 30 mg /day. This increased consumption of this element is explained by the need to synthesize new red blood cells (the volume of blood in a pregnant woman increases by 50%) and the tissues of the fetus and the placenta. These needs can not be replenished at once, therefore in the body there is a "depot" of iron. But in most pregnant women this stock is small.
Deficiency of iron may be associated with its insufficient content in the usual diet, with the way food is processed and the loss of vitamins and proteins of animal origin necessary for the assimilation of this element. Another substance needed to maintain a normal level of hemoglobin is folic acid (vitamin B9). It does not accumulate in the body, and its stock must be constantly replenished. The adult person needs 200 micrograms of folic acid daily, and the need of a pregnant woman is 300 micrograms /day. An acute deficiency in this substance can lead to megaloblastic anemia - a disease in which the marrow produces giant immature erythrocytes. The condition is manifested by nausea and diarrhea (diarrhea), pain in the abdominal cavity, the appearance of painful ulcers on the oral mucosa and pharynx, hair loss and memory problems.
With a lack of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin), also the formation of red blood cells, which leads to a drop in the level of hemoglobin in the blood, develops anemia that is resistant to treatment with iron. The daily dosage of vitamin B necessary for a person is only about 3 μg. Pregnant women doctors recommend increasing the daily intake of vitamin B12 by about 2-3 times.
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is involved in the metabolism of folic acid and iron, so with its lack, the risk of anemia increases. In addition, vitamin C improves absorption of iron in the intestine. A future mother enough to receive 100 mg of ascorbic acid per day. Copper (daily requirement - from 1.5 to 5 mg), cobalt (40-70 μg), manganese (2-10 mg), zinc (10-20 mg) are involved in the processes of hematopoiesis and hemoglobin synthesis, therefore the lack of these microelements also leads to anemia.
What should be the food for anemia?
The food should be high-grade, contain a sufficient amount of iron and protein, which are necessary for building the basis of red blood cells and the synthesis of hemoglobin. In the second half of pregnancy it is necessary that 50% of the total amount of proteins entering the body be of animal origin, that is, those that are contained in fish, meat, milk, dairy products and eggs. The remaining half can be obtained from plant products (for example, beans and peas).
The minimum daily dose of meat or fish products for a pregnant woman is 200-300 g. Meat is the main source of animal protein, B vitamins and iron. It is recommended to buy chilled, not frozen meat - it better preserves useful qualities. From meat appetizers preference is given to low-fat boiled meat, ham, boiled pork, preferably home-made. From sausage-sausage products it is better to refuse altogether, as they contain a lot of salt, spices, fats and preservatives. In the menu, the future mother should include beef, pork, poultry and rabbit.
In case of anemia it is desirable to moderate the fat in the diet (up to 70-80 g /day). Such a recommendation is explained by the fact that with anemia often changes in the liver (due to a violation of its blood supply) and obesity of the bone marrow, and fats depress hemopoiesis. Therefore, in the diet should give preference to easily digestible fats - milk and fats of vegetable oils (sunflower, olive, etc.). Iron and other minerals involved in the blood-forming organism enter the body with meat, eggs, yeast, cereals, vegetables, fruits and berries.