Obstetric bleeding. Definition. Frequency.

By obstetric hemorrhage is understood any blood loss from the genital organs of a woman during pregnancy and pathological blood loss during childbirth and the postpartum period. Uterine bleeding in childbirth and early postnatal periods in the physiological range (up to 0.3% of body weight, which is approximately 250 ml) caused gemohorialnim type of connection between the placenta and uterus, does not affect the general condition of the mother and do not require the inclusion of the compensatory mechanisms of the body.

Admissible blood loss is 250-400 ml, which in terms of body weight is 0.3-0.5% and, as a rule, is tolerated without complications. The blood loss of more than 0.5% of body weight is considered pathological. Given that pregnant women, women in childbirth and postpartum reduced tolerance to blood loss and shock symptoms may develop at its 800-1000ml volume blood loss up to 1-1.5% of body weight is regarded as a moderate, and more than 1% of body weight as a solid.

The frequency of obstetrical bleeding is still high and ranges from 2.5 to 4.7%. Uterine bleeding remains the main cause of urgent states and occupies one of the first places in the structure of maternal mortality. This pathology in the case of a single main cause of death is 20-45%, and also complicates a woman's condition under another leading pathology.

Bleeding during pregnancy and childbirth are more often caused by placenta previa, abruptio placentae, ruptured uterus, vaginal tears varicose veins and pathological processes in the uterus. Bleeding in the consecutive and early postpartum periods arise as a result of disturbances in the processes of placental abruption and the isolation of the placenta; hypo-and atony of the uterus, traumatic injuries of the birth canal; congenital and acquired disorders of the hemostasis system.