Adapted milk mixtures
All adapted milk mixtures according to the degree of approximation of their composition to breast milk fall into three categories:
highly adapted (NAN, Pre-NAN, Nutrilon, Hipp-1 CMA, Bona, Piltti, etc.
less adapted (Similak, Impressa , "Hipp-2", "Enfamil", etc.)
and partially adapted (Malyuta-ka, Malysh, Detotakt, Solnyshko, Milazan, Vitalakt,
In addition, the mixtures are divided into simple sweet ("B-rice", "B-buckwheat", "B-oats") and lactic acid ("B-kefir", B- acidophilic mixture, kefir, acidophilic milk, etc.). Unadapted formula based on whole or diluted cow's milk milk does not provide adequate nutrition for children.Cow's milk has a high protein content (3 times more) and mineral substances (2.8 times more) than in human milk, has a high osmolarity.Therefore, a large load on unripe kidneys, causes a metabolic stress, promotes growth stimulation and excessive accumulation of fat.
Unadapted mixtures cause significant deviations in the children's body: decrease in the energy potential of cells and the level of protein synthesis, lipid spectrum disorders, anemia and immunity disorders. Lactic acid mixtures ensure the growth of bifidoflora (Nan fermented milk, "AGU-1", "AGU-2" sour-milk).
Still there are therapeutic mixtures
Medical mixtures for premature babies: Pre NAN, Prenutrilon, Frisepre, Enfalak, Neonatal, Enfalak Prematura, etc. The lactose-free mixtures include Nutri-soya, Al-110 , "Tutteli-soya", "Bona-soya", "isomil-semilak", "about myself", "Alsoy", etc.
Low-lactose mixtures: low-lactose "Nutrilon", low-lactose "Humana" and "Portagen".
For the treatment of children with cystic fibrosis and diarrhea, they use mixtures of "Robolact", "Alfa pe", "pepti-junior", "Pregestemil" et al.
With symptoms of regurgitation, an antireflux mixture "Enfamil", "Nutrilon Omneo", "Frisov" is used. For the children of the 2-3rd year of life a mixture of "En-surnames Junior" is intended.
The average need of a child in a protein with natural feeding before the introduction of complementary foods is 2-2.5 g per kg of body weight per day, after the introduction of complementary foods increases to 3-3.5 g. With mixed and artificial feeding, the need for proteins is 2.5 - 3.5 g per kg of body weight using a highly adapted mixture and 3.5-4.5 g per kg of body weight using unadapted mixtures. The amount of fat in the first quarter of the year is 6.5 g per kg of body weight, the second - 6.0 grams, the third - 5.5 grams, the fourth - 5.0 g per kg of body weight. The need for carbohydrates in children of the first year of life is 12-14 g per kg of body weight.
The necessary amount of energy per kg of body weight depends on a quarter of the year: in the first quarter the child needs 120 kcal, in the second quarter - 115 in the third - 110 in the fourth - 100. Feeding the child with unadapted mixtures requires an increase in the energy value of food by 5-10%.