Allergic edema of the oral mucosa is one of the types of edema of Quincke - a complex and dangerous allergic reaction that develops suddenly. Such a reaction is subject to all age categories, but is most often found in young women.
Causes of an allergic edema
First of all, the cause is the impact of allergenic products - eggs, fish, chocolate, berries, nuts, citrus fruits, milk.
The reason may also be the taking of medications and the effects of natural phenomena - animal hair, pollen of flowers, insect bites.
In addition, allergic edema of the mouth can be caused by cosmetic means.
The cause may be stresses, infections, hypothermia, intoxication.
There are some factors predisposing to the appearance of an allergic edema: these are diseases of the thyroid gland (especially with hypothyroidism), liver, stomach, blood, various parasitic and autoimmune diseases. In this case, allergic edema acquires a chronic recurrent form.
In some cases, the cause of the edema of Quincke can not be established - the so-called idiopathic edema.
The allergic reaction begins suddenly and literally for several minutes (less often hours) there is a pronounced localized edema - tongue, soft palate, tonsils, larynx. In passing, we note that Quincke's edema can affect not only the oral cavity, but also the airways, the gastrointestinal tract, the genitourinary system. Pain sensations are rarely accompanied, patients, as a rule. Complain about a certain tension of tissues in the area of edema. When pressing on the edema of the hole does not remain, palpation is painless. There is hoarse voice, barking cough. Edema of the larynx and tongue often leads to asphyxia, that is, there is trouble breathing, the cyanosis of the tongue develops.
The edema can spread to the brain and the meninges. At the same time, neurological disorders follow - epileptic seizures, aphasia, etc.
Quincke is swelling from several hours to several days, after which it disappears completely, but later recurs.
The development of laryngeal edema, especially with increasing symptoms of respiratory failure, is most dangerous.
Emergency care for allergic edema
As a rule, the doctor injects 0.1-0.5 ml of 0.1% solution of adrenaline subcutaneously. In addition, hormone therapy begins: the patient is given glucocorticoids - prednisolone 60-90 mg intramuscularly or intravenously, dexazone 8-12 mg intravenously.
Then comes desensitizing treatment: antihistamines - suprastin 2% 2.0 intramuscularly, claritin, telfast.
Also prescribed diuretics - lasix 40-80 mg intravenously struino in 15-20 ml of saline.
Detoxication therapy is carried out. Hospitalization is compulsory.
Prophylactically prescribed drugs to improve the tone of the nervous system - calcium preparations, vitamin C, askorutin, ephedrine. Avoid contact with allergens.